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Charles V spoke the language; Philip II did not. In 1576, the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in 1577. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. The European wars of religion were a series of Christian religious wars which were waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Beggars of the Sea took to pirating under commission from William of Orange. The first major changes to doctrine and practice took place under Vicar-General Thomas Cromwell, and the newly appointed Protestant-leaning Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Shortly after this episode, local resistance to the reforms emerged in England. See the source page or the FAQ for more information. Peace negotiations were concluded in the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which stated that Christian IV could keep his control over Denmark-Norway if he would abandon his support for the Protestant German states. Rate. However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, later returned but did not succeed in raising many Highland clans, and the Covenanters defeated his army at the Battle of Carbisdale in Ross-shire on 27 April 1650. Here a group of prominent citizens, including the Lutheran pastor turned Anabaptist Bernhard Rothmann, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson ("John of Leiden") had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, 1534. Labelling the Second World War battles between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia on the Eastern Front as The War of the Century is asking for trouble. In 1625, as part of the Thirty Years' War, Christian IV, who was also the Duke of Holstein, agreed to help the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire by intervening militarily. Lawlessness was rife and taxation burdensome. Lawlessness was rife and taxation burdensome. Mary claimed to favour religious toleration on the French model, however the Protestant establishment feared a reestablishment of Catholicism, and sought with English help to neutralise or depose Mary. Further north, the city of Maastricht was besieged on March 12, 1579. By 1649, the struggle had left the Royalists there in disarray, and their erstwhile leader, the Marquess of Montrose, had gone into exile. Updates? Their theological basis was in the liberal tradition of Erasmus versus the conservative line of the Spanish Church. The siege of Drogheda and massacre of nearly 3,500 people—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. A small force of Aegeri succeeded in routing the camp, and the demoralized Zürich force had to retreat, forcing the Protestants to agree to a peace treaty to their disadvantage. The young Fitzgerald failed to gain much local support, however, and in October a 1,600 strong army of English and Welshmen arrived in Ireland, along with four modern siege-guns. The Beggars, who were nearly all ardent Calvinists, showed against the Catholics the same ferocity that the Inquisition and the Council of Blood had shown against rebels and heretics. 3. Later that same month Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Zeeland formed the United Provinces which became the Dutch Netherlands of today. Rate. Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. The Protestant army laid siege to several cities in the Poitou and Saintonge regions (to protect La Rochelle), and then Angoulême and Cognac. In June 1941, Hitler broke the golden rule of warfare never to fight on opposite fronts and marched into the Soviet Union. The most politically significant turn of events came when Charles V of Spain transferred sovereignty of the Low Countries to his son Philip II. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the latter stages of the war, Catholic France, fearful of an increase in Habsburg power, also intervened on the Protestant side. Religious tensions also broke into violence in the German free city of Donauwörth in 1606, when the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents from holding a procession, provoking a riot. On October 11, 1531, the Catholic cantons decisively defeated the forces of Zürich in the Second War of Kappel. For example, by the end of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), Catholic France was allied with the Protestant forces against the Catholic Habsburg monarchy. Its members eventually intended the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire itself, and each state was to provide 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalries for mutual defense. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. It consisted of a series of economic as well as religious revolts by Anabaptist peasants, townsfolk and nobles. Charles soon needed to raise more money to suppress this Irish Rebellion. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The Empire was a fragmented collection of practically independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as their titular ruler; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. Ellis, S. "The Tudors and the origins of the modern Irish states: A standing army". After her army's defeat at the Battle of Langside on May 13, she fled to England, where she was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth. Rate. The second field action of the war was a stand-off at Turnham Green, and Charles was forced to withdraw to Oxford, which would serve as his base for the remainder of the war. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla warfare and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. Starting as a revolt against feudal oppression, the peasants' uprising became a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force an ideal Christian commonwealth. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly.  The wars were largely ended by the Peace of Westphalia (1648), establishing a new political order now known as Westphalian sovereignty. Catholicism was forcibly suppressed. Philip II died in 1598. There, in the bloodiest battle of the war, the Yorkists won a complete victory. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. This period was also known for the Inquisition. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. At the Reformation's zenith around 1590, Protestant governments and/or cultures controlled about half of the European territory; however, as a result of Catholic reconquests, only about one fifth was left in 1690. At this time there were only a limited number of Protestants among the general population, and these were mostly living in the towns of the South and the East of England. [Citation needed] The Union of Brussels was formed only to be dissolved later out of intolerance towards the religious diversity of its members.  Scholars have pointed out that some European wars of this period were not caused by disputes occasioned by the Reformation, such as the Italian Wars (1494–1559, only involving Catholics)[note 1] and the Northern Seven Years' War (1563–1570, only involving Lutherans). The Catholic League's presses and supporters continued to spread stories about atrocities committed against Catholic priests and the laity in Protestant England (see Forty Martyrs of England and Wales). Unlike the two world wars, however, the Russian Civil War did not spread across Europe or beyond. Moray and the rebellious lords were routed and fled into exile; the decisive military action becoming known as the Chaseabout Raid. However, lacking a fleet, he was unable to take the Danish capital on the island of Zealand.  Others emphasise the fact that cross-religious alliances existed, such as the Lutheran duke Maurice of Saxony assisting the Catholic emperor Charles V in the first Schmalkaldic War in 1547 in order to become the Saxon elector instead of John Frederick, his Lutheran cousin, while the Catholic king Henry II of France supported the Lutheran cause in the Second Schmalkaldic War in 1552 to secure French bases in modern-day Lorraine. Another tells of an enraged man who interrupted Christmas Mass, took the host, and trampled it. Here they banded together to form the Schmalkaldic League (German: Schmalkaldischer Bund), an alliance designed to protect themselves from the Imperial action. Hundreds of besiegers were scalded or choked to death when boiling water was poured into the tunnels or fires were lit to fill them with smoke. The political temperature of the surrounding lands was rising, as religious unrest grew in the Netherlands. In 1638 the Scottish National Covenant was signed by aggrieved presbyterian lords and commoners. Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Moray on 23 June 1650 and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant immediately after coming ashore. The Catholic Clan MacDonald was subject to the 1691 Glencoe Massacre for being late in pledging loyalty to the new Protestant king William II. This provoked the First War. Then Edward, with the remainder of Warwick’s forces, pursued Margaret north to Towton. The period of the French Wars of Religion effectively removed France's influence as a major European power, allowing the Catholic forces in the Holy Roman Empire to regroup and recover. In 1592, Farnese died of wounds and exhaustion. LIST OF WARS. Battles were fought fiercely in caverns with limited maneuvering capabilities. However, religion was only one of the causes, which also included revolts, territorial ambitions, and Great Power conflicts. Spain had taken the upper hand on land but the Beggars still controlled the sea. The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. Henry recovered in 1455, reestablishing the authority of Margaret’s party. 1. Year: Season 1. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Lutherans and the Catholics in Germany. The Mexican-American War was a conflict between the United States and Mexico, fought from April 1846 to February 1848.Won by the Americans and damned by its contemporary critics as expansionist, it resulted in the U.S. gaining more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean.  Another 400,000 Germans, British, and other nationalities died in Swedish service.. Contemporary estimates put the dead at 100,000. The soldiers ate, drank, then killed every person in the town. Margaret of Anjou reportedly once let her 7-year-old son pick the manner in which two captured Yorkists would be executed; he chose beheading. Great magnates with private armies dominated the countryside. He proceeded to Dundee where a large number of Protestant sympathisers and noblemen had gathered. One authority puts France's losses against Austria at 80,000 killed or wounded and against Spain (including the years 1648–1659, after Westphalia) at 300,000 dead or disabled. The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. The first battle of the wars, at St. Albans (May 22, 1455), resulted in a Yorkist victory and four years of uneasy truce. The execution of Charles I altered the dynamics of the Civil War in Scotland, which had raged between Royalists and Covenanters since 1644. A garrison of 4,000 troops defended the city with such intensity that Don Fadrique contemplated withdrawing. The war had proved disastrous for the German-speaking parts of the Holy Roman Empire. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A Scottish rebellion, known as the Bishops War, soon followed, leading to the defeat of a weak royalist counter-force in 1640. Maurice of Nassau, William's son, had studied mathematics and applied the latest techniques in science to ballistics and siege warfare. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. Altering the course of World War II, it shaped the borders and attitudes of Europe for the second half of the 20th Century. The coldblooded and calculated ferocity that now entered English political life certainly owed something to the political ideas of the Italian Renaissance, but, arguably, it was also in part a legacy of the lawless habits acquired by the nobility during the Hundred Years’ War. From then on the struggle was bitter. In June 1941, Hitler broke the golden rule of warfare never to fight on opposite fronts and marched into the Soviet Union. Fiery Calvinist preacher John Knox returned to Scotland in 1560, having been exiled for his part in the assassination of Cardinal Beaton. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots, and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. Meanwhile, English Puritans and Scottish Calvinists intensely opposed the king's main religious policy of unifying the Church of England and the Church of Scotland under a form of High Church Anglicanism. The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[full citation needed] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. The Empire also contained regional powers, such as Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier, and Württemberg. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June (First War of Kappel), occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall, and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. This, however, was no easy task. However, this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). The English parliament refused to vote enough money for Charles to defeat the Scots without the King giving up much of his authority and reforming the English church along more Calvinist lines. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular rising in Yorkshire in 1536–37 against Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church. Numbers of malcontents drank sacramental wine and burned missals. Clément was executed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. By 1617 Germany was bitterly divided, and it was clear that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir. Christian III established Lutheranism by force in Norway in 1537, Faroe Islands in 1540, and Iceland in 1550. This was considered the last and most costly victory of Alva's regime. He legalized polygamy and took sixteen wives, one of whom he personally beheaded in the marketplace. Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and ultimately Jutland. Warfare intensified after the Catholic Church began the Counter-Reformation in 1545 against the growth of Protestantism.  In an attempt to mine the city, 500 of Farnese's own men were killed when the explosives detonated prematurely. Attacks on Dutch border towns were made by Spinola, an Italian banker who pledged allegiance to Spain. The most accurate description of the twentieth century is "The War and Welfare Century." But, in 1621, 12 years later, the war resumed when the Netherlands reverted to Spain when Albert and Isabel died childless. Maastricht was a major disaster for the Protestant cause and the Dutch began to turn on William of Orange. One Count fed the Eucharistic wafers to his parrot in defiance. [dubious – discuss][clarification needed], Series of wars waged in Europe from ca. After the Convention of Estates deposed the Catholic king James VII on 11 April 1689, they offered the royal title to William and his wife Mary (the Protestant daughter of James), which they accepted on 11 May 1689. For the final stage of the revolution, Maitland appealed to Scottish patriotism to fight French domination. They stole the jewels and costly robes of the religious. War Documentary hosted by Samuel West and published by BBC in 2005 - English narration  Cover InformationIt was the bloodiest war in history, yet Hitler's brutal invasion of the Soviet Union and Stalin's subsequent fight back is surprisingly little known in the West. Valenciennes alone like to print: Corrections Catholics were victorious and able to maintain royal authority the! Only 400 survived formally received into the Netherlands of Leiden was installed as King finally arrived by... Upon which the Dutch but the rebels without mercy noses and ears of priests and monks captives were given! 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Four-Part series investigates what led to the Scots, and their son fled to Scotland and Soviet was.
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